Title:Mapping Meaning, Denoting Difference, Imagining Identity: Dialectical Images
and Postmodern Geographies
Author:Michael J. Watts
Source:Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, Vol. 73, No. 1, Meaning
Watts has taken Muslim in Nigeria as example to explain how an traditional African group to face the globalization
and modernity. The local group doesn't accept the globalization but to incoprate it into their polical, economic
and historical structure. He have not agreed with the the opinion of "placeless power and powerless place" and he have cited
Stuart Hall(1989)'s "bus ticket" ideal to claim people would buy a ticket(localization) in order to get from here(the local) to there(the globe).
Accoding to Watts, the globalization is rooted into the local culture geography and the local identity will be strengthened to maintain their
political and economic structure. But he has isolated the local from the globe and over-emphasized the social boundaries in the geography. Wi-Fi identity
study can review his points through universal technology, a transnational bus ticket which is sold by a local kiosk, and users' behavior, covering from the high class to low class.
The globalization have been incoprated into the local culture.
Behavior is important->buying a ticket in order to get from here to there.
work in cultural
studies sees human worlds as constructed
through historical and political processes, and
not as brute timeless facts of nature (1989, 7).
in this sense, a form of symbolic creativity, and a
part of necessary work as Willis himself says
(1990), which contains its own 'grounded aesthetic'!
Broadly speaking, I think that Aronowitz (1991)
is quite correct in his assessment that cultural
studies in this expanded sense contributed to, and
radically challenged, three primary domains: epistemic
(including forms of knowledge and facticity,
and the constitution and limits of conventional disciplines),
discursive (how social identity is constructed
by communities and how communities
are constructed discursively), and aesthetic (the
historic context of the aesthetics of everyday life).
I would like to now turn to difference of another
sort, a concern with difference that emanates from
geographical interrogations of postmodernity and
One account is provided by Ed Soja
in his brilliant Borgesian narrative on the internationalization
of Los Angeles, in which he argues
that there is not so much a global duplication of
Los Angeles as much as the appropriation and reproduction
of other urban experiences within the
metropolitan fabric; in short a city of simulacra
(1989, p. 221).
I use the term identity.. .precisely to try to identify
that meeting point where the processes that
constitute and continuously reform the subject
have to act and speak in the social and cultural
worlds.. ..I understand identities therefore as
points of suture, points of attachment, points
of temporary identification.. .[O]ne only discovers
who one is because of the identities
which one has to take on in order to act. ..always
knowing that they are always representations
[which] can never be adequate to the subjective
processes which are temporarily invested
in them ....I think identities is sort of. ..like a
bus, you just have to get from here tothere, the
whole of you can never be represented in the
ticket you carry but you just have to buy a ticket
in order to get from here to there (Hall,
1989, no pagination, emphasis mine).