The summary of "The Great Arch"
1. Social theory has long acknowledged some some connectionbetween state formation and the rise of modern capitalism, both in generalterms and in the specific case of England: that is the empirical focus in thisbook.
2. That the triumph of modern capitalist civilization involved awholesale cultural revolution too- a revolution as much in the way the worldwas made sense of as in how goods were produced and exchanged- is also widelyrecognized, whether in sociological, Marxist of feminist literature.
3. State formation play a major role in orchestrating thisconstitutive regulation, both by what it is and by what it does.
4. What this book attempt is to grasp state forms culturally andcultural forms as state-regulated.
5. They insist that state formation itself is cultural revolution.
6. The repertoire of activities and institutions conventionallyidentified as 'the State' are cultural forms, and cultural forms, moreover, ofparticular centrality to bourgeois civilization.
7. What counts as 'politics' evidently receives much of its definitionfrom the institutions of state through which it is organized, so that, forinstance, the distinction between 'political' and 'industrial' strikes becomessecond nature within our culture.
8. Fundamental social classification, like age and gender, areenshrined in law, embedded in institutions, routinized in administrative proceduresand symbolized in rituals of state.
9. State formation is a totalizing project, representing people asmembers of a particular community - an 'illusory community'.
10. Nationality, conversely, allows categorization of 'others' -within as well as without- as 'alien'.
11. As Foucault has observed, state formation equallyindividualizes people in quite definite and specific way.
12. Collective representations - ways in which we are collectivelyrepresented to ourselves and in which, and in which 'permissible' parametersand forms of individual identity are defined and symbolized for us- aresimultaneously descriptive and moral.
13. The authors were dealing with social individuals, inparticular, historically constructed relations. This has two implicationsmissing from Durkheim's account:
(1) The conscience in question is always that of a dominant class,gender, race, delineating and idealizing its conditions of rule, in the finalanalysis as rules of individual conduct.
(2) Making this conscience genuinely collective is always anaccomplishment, a struggle, against other ways of seeing, other moralities,which express the historical experiences of the dominated.
14. Two particular clarifications - notices of areasinsufficiently discussed, but nonetheless highly pertinent to the themes of theauthors:
(1) This book deals with English state formation in England.
(2) The state formation sketched was and is more generallydifferentiated in its 'design' , considered from above, and its 'meaning' -experience - considered from below.
B. 'A remarkably Centralized Country' : State formation inMedieval England
1.The peculiarity of English state formation:
(1) England was a truly unified state much earlier than any othercontinental kingdom.
(2) The central state capacity in England was from the start basedupon a high degree of involvement of local ruling elites in the exercise ofgovernance.
The 'political nation' was an extremely small proportion of theEnglish people as a whole.
(3) The peculiar flexibility of English state forms.
2. One important index of the central capability of theAnglo-Saxon state was its ability to tax.
3. There are two points about this inquiry which need toparticular emphasis.
(1) It establishes that royal property differs in quality from anyother.
(2) The making of such inquiries also challenged alternativenotions of legitimacy : not just customary right since 'time immemorial', butequally warrant by the sword.
4. Legal power is related directly to language use:
(1) because some forms of words have to be used through therestricted code of the later - Latin, law French, precise and arcane forms ofwrit and plea- was a persistent means of rule and area of cultural struggleover the centuries.
(2) because many words came to be legally defined, by both statuteand case law.
5. The establishment and transformation, through the centuries, of'private rights', and wider connection of state formation and theindividualization of social relationships, will be central themes of this book.
6. Equally, however, this centralized system continued to dependupon local opinion and involvement.
7. In both these cases a much more general features of stateformation is evident, exactly as it is in the 'representative' claims andpractices of Parliament.
8. They would still argue that by the end of the middle agesinstitutional forms and political traditions had been constructed in Englandwhich made it singular in important respects, and which were to server asresources in the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century revolutions.
9. This culture cannot be divorced from the process of stateformation.
C. 'The Realm of England is an Empire' : The Revolution of the1530s
1.Nationalization , and Erastianization , of the Church - thedecisive shift from its being the Church in england, archiepiscopal provincesof the Universal Church of Rome, to the Church of England, under the supremacyof the Crown.
2. The royal supremacy gave the Crown both greatly extendedoppprtunities for patronage(保護人身分), andcontrol over what was at the time the most extensive apparatus(
3. The seed of the notion of England as an election nation arepresent in the officially inspired or sanctioned propaganda of the 1530sthemselves.
4. The final feature of Elton’s thesus we do wish tofocus on is his view of the kind of sovereignty being constructed in England inthe 1530s, and its implications for the two institutions we highlighted intheir discussion of the medieval period - Parliament and the law.
5. This is important, for several reasons:
(1) it to our mind at least convincingly demolishes any thoughtthat Henry III was attempting to construct a personal desposition.
(2) The prestige, authority and centrality of Parliament itselfwere greatly strengthened by its role in the revolution.
D. An Elect Nation: The Elizabethan Consolidation
1. By 1593 a Bill could pass Parliament imposing on Protestantnonconformists (非英國國教者) penalities similar to those for recusants.In part this was because the radical Puritans lost support in high places:there is clear evidence that erstwhile (以前的
2. State formation was itself shifting the basis of aristocraticpower from manred (扶手繩) to political influenceand office.
3. One significant addition was witchcraft:
(1) It exemplifies the case made earlier for the ideological roleof Christianity during this period. The key shift is the increased concern ofthe emergent and religiously sanctioned nation state with peoples belief.
(2) Witchcraft was overwhelmingly a female crime. It thus further exemplfies thatt structuring bygender of society and its self-images through state routines.
E, Mortall God Enthroned: One Bourgeois REvolution (of Many)
1. The origins of the Civil War, and the question of itsconnection with wider social and economic changes - in particular, the rise ofcapitalism - have been the topic of perennial(長期的
2. This measure effectively gave landlore absolute, modern,property rights: their land became a commodity which could be freely bought,sold, mortaged(抵押).
3. The notion of abourgeois revolution suggests a momentary(瞬間)rupture(斷裂), a defined and dated event, in whichpolitical power visibly changes class hands.
F. From Theatre to Machine: Old Corruption
1.Financial andadministrative support of military and naval forces is central.
2. The particullar state formation, in its institutions and itsimagery, was one of focus or embodiment of the actual moral relations
3. The authors thought the theatrical, ritualized, performedfeatures of these state forms must be emphasized for two further reasons:
(1) In providing a reprtoire(節目) ofcollective representations, a particular moral order is being made. This moralorder is a material constituent of the consolidation of men of property, andprovides the code for the subsequent moralization of others.
(2) The theatricality was a pervasive metaphor in the crucialcivic philosophy and sociological theorizing of the Scottish Moral
G. The Working Class Question : Society and society
1. State formation and cultural regulation reach a frenzy(
(1) Scoiety - comprising men of property - is extended, reformed,kept flexibly open ; it enlarges itself, shifts and inflect (
(2) The working class is resistingly involved in its own beingmade.
(3) forms of rule - feathures of state formation - are equallymade and making.
3. Democracy arises precisely in that complex moment when Societyrecognizes society and in that recognition attempts the dis- and re-organizesof the latter. It marks a transition from the the political nation to thenation. The grand metaphor of the contitution serves to handle this transitionand the resulting theory and practice of representation handles the moremassive contradiction surrrounding the moral individualization of labour.
4. The cultural revolution which we see state formation asentailing is well illustrated in the forms of state regulation and provisioncentering upon the slow, protracted(拖延), complex acculturationwhich francise(公民權) reform, party formation, and all ofofficial politics involved.
H. Epilogue : There Is, Above All, an Agency
1. Cultural revolution is not merely an ideational matter, andcannot be considered independently of the materiality of state formation - whatstate agencies are, how they act, and on whom.
2.The particular set of cultrual images was fundamental to thecinstruction of English capitalist civilization, in a number ways.
(1) They were integral to the making of the English ruling classitself - from the mid-sixteenth century, if not before, a classincreasingly capitalist in substance,if some ways distinctively aristocratic in style. In Weberian term, in Englanda rationalizing state continued to be legitimated by primarily traditionalforms of authority : the power of symbol, ritual, custom, routine, ways inwhich things have always been done, in which the very bizarreness and anachronism(
(2) This set of cultural images provided the moral energy forEnglish imperialism : the successive（連續） imposition(
(3) Those same cultural forms were key forms of rule as muchwithin the nation as without.
3. The State - the nation made manifest- is the material agencythrough which this reformulation is concerted(一致); notits source, that lies in relations of production and reproduction, but thecentral means of its organization.
4. The State symbolizes the nation; particularly so, they wouldargue where conceptions ofn ational identity are so closely bound up withhistory of state formation. Its symbols and rituals come to stand for,represent, that which demarcates us, set us apart and makes us what we are.
5. The revolution too has deep roots and long traditions, in allthat state formation has organized itself, and sought to organize us, against.There is more to do than look back in anger. Imagine.